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苹果手机为何选择在中国组装?仅是因为劳动力廉价么?

kira86 于2018-07-05发布 l 已有人浏览
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苹果手机为何选择在中国组装?而不选择在美国组装?绝非仅是因为廉价劳动力而已。
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iphone.jpg
Why the iPhone Can't Be Made in the US

为什么苹果手机不能在美国生产

Take a look at the back of any iPhone and you'll see a familiar phrase that's been printed on almost one billion units of the iconic product.

观察苹果手机的背面,你会看到一个熟悉的,已经被印在数十亿苹果旗舰产品上的短语,

Designed by Apple in California. Assembled in China. Like everything at Apple, that wording is deliberate.

由加州苹果公司设计。在中国组装。正如苹果的一切一样,这一措词是经过深思熟虑的。

Apple designs the exterior, writes the software, researches new technologies and develops its own chips in California,

在加州,苹果公司设计产品外观,编写软件,研究新科技,开发自己的芯片,

which allows it to sell devices for 65 percent more than their cost.

这种经营模式使得苹果公司能够以高出成本价65%的价格销售产品。

But iPhones are assembled in China for a reason. It's easy to assume that reason is cheaper labor.

但是,苹果选择在中国组装事出有因。人们很容易认为苹果公司是看中了中国的廉价劳动力。

While wages are lower, this doesn't tell the whole story. In fact, assembly is only 2% of an iPhones hardware cost.

尽管中国工人薪水的确低廉,但这并不能说明全部问题。事实上,组装只占苹果硬件成本的2%。

Today, most iPhones are made in two Chinese cities: Shenzhen and Zhengzhou.

如今,中国两座城市承担了大部分苹果手机的制造工作:深圳和郑州。

Favorable government policies helped Shenzhen become the electronics factory to the world

优越的政策让深圳成为世界电子工厂。

... with Taiwanese company Foxconn its biggest employer.

台湾公司富士康是是深圳最大的雇主。

As a result, thousands of companies and millions of workers have moved to the southern Chinese city to be close to the action.

最终,成千上万的公司和数百万的工人聚集到这座中国南方城市,从事电子行业。

During peak iPhone season, Foxconn hires almost a million people, cutting its workforce to a few hundred thousand during low season.

在苹果手机需求旺季,富士康一度雇佣了100万名工人,但在淡季,又裁员至几十万人。

Such a cluster effect in Shenzhen means that most of the components needed to make a phone, a laptop, or a drone are within a fifty mile radius.

深圳这种产业集群效应意味着厂家可以在方圆50英里内找到生产一部手机、一台笔记本电脑,或一架无人机所需的大多数零件。

Attempts to recreate this cluster have so far failed. Brazil is the perfect example...

尝试在别处构建这种产业集群效应的努力目前均告失败。巴西就是一个典型的失败案例。

Apple was facing high import tariffs in Brazil and urged Foxconn to make iPhones there.

巴西面向苹果公司征收高额进口关税,因此苹果公司希望富士康可以在巴西境内生产产品。

After securing local incentives, Foxconn built a factory. But very little changed.

在得到当地政府的激励政策后,富士康在巴西建造了一个工厂,但其生产格局并未发生太大变化。

Rather than doing lots of high-level manufacturing in Brazil, Foxconn continued to do most of the work back in China

富士康并没有在巴西,而是继续在中国进行大部分高端组装工作。

where the supply chain was nearby and parts could be preassembled.

在中国,供应链触手可及,还可以进行部分配件的预组装。

This meant that most of an iPhone was made in China and merely shipped to Brazil for local workers to slot together like Lego.

这意味着大部分苹果手机的生产工作都在中国完成,仅在基本完成后运往巴西,让当地工人像拼装乐高(Lego)一样组装起来。

In the end, the Brazil project failed on two levels - it hired a fraction of the workers the government had expected

最终,巴西项目在两个层面上失败了—一方面,它未能提供当地政府所期望的工作岗位数量,

and it didn't attract any of Apple's hundreds of suppliers.

另一方面,它未能吸引到苹果数百个供应商中的任何一个。

If an iPhone is to be made in the U.S., it's more likely to follow the Brazil model, not the Shenzhen model,

如果苹果手机在美国组装,则很可能重蹈巴西覆辙,而非复制深圳辉煌。

which means far fewer jobs and for those workers, making for Apple would be as seasonal as picking apples.

这意味着工作岗位的锐减。对于工人们来说,为苹果公司工作变得像果农摘苹果一样是季节性的。

So while the U.S. could one day boast an iPhone "Assembled in America." The question is, does it really want to?

因此,有朝一日,即使美国真的在夸耀“美国组装”的苹果手机,也要问问,它真的想这么做吗?

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